Science

Table of Contents

Living Environment       Physical Setting       Physics        Additional Science Settings  

The Science Department seeks to develop in its students a lifelong appreciation of science and its processes in the natural world.  Students will develop techniques of self-directed learning and the collaborative skills necessary for working in a group setting to reach common goals. They will work with equipment and materials in a safe laboratory environment. Students will be able to demonstrate an ability to pose problems, collect and analyze relevant data, make unbiased observations in the natural world, formulate realistic solutions, and draw meaningful conclusions. The 700 series courses listed in the content areas represent the Special Education Core Courses.

The Living Environment
All courses in this area deal with the study of living organisms. Topics include cell structure and function, biochemistry, animal and plant biology, human anatomy and physiology, reproduction and development, genetics, evolution and ecology. Regents and Honors living environment courses have a lab requirement, which must be met to be able to take the Regents exam. One Living Science is required for high school graduation.

223/747 Living Environment Regents - 1 credit        Grade 9-10       40 weeks
This course provides a fundamental knowledge of the biological sciences. Lab and classroom topics include cell theory, plant and animal biology, biochemistry, genetics, evolution, human physiology, reproduction, and ecology. Satisfactory completion of a laboratory requirement is necessary to take the Regents examination.
224 Living Environment Honors - 1 credit       Grades 9-10       40 weeks
The topics of cell biology, biochemistry, genetics, evolution, botany, human anatomy and physiology, reproduction and development, and ecology are presented in greater depth in this course than in the regular biology course. Advanced genetic topics will be included. Individualized projects are an integral part of the curriculum. Students must be highly motivated and capable of independent work. Satisfactory completion of a laboratory requirement is necessary to take the Regents examination. Students who master this course may consider taking the SAT Subject Test in Biology in early June. Additional independent student preparation is required prior to sitting for any SAT Subject Test.
Recommendation: It is recommended that a student has achieved an 85 or better in their Earth Science class and achieved at least an 85 on the Earth Science Regents exam.
263 A.P. Biology - 1 credit       Grades 11-12       40 weeks
A.P. Biology is a college-level biology course. Biology A.P. covers all areas of biology but to a greater depth than covered in both the Regents and Honors courses in Grades 9/10. This course is recommended for those students planning to major in science or pre-med. in college. This course follows the curriculum established by the College Board and prepares students for the A.P. Biology exam. The A.P. Program requires that students have successfully completed high school courses in biology and chemistry. This requirement is due to the advanced nature of the study of complex biological systems. Students who qualify based upon their examination scores may receive college credit and/or course waivers. There is a district evaluation at the end of the course. Students who master this course may consider taking the SAT Subject Test in Biology in early June.  Prerequisite: The student must have passed a chemistry course.
Recommendation: It is recommended that a student has an 85 or better in Chemistry and an 85 or better in Living Environment R or H or teacher approval. This course should not be used as a substitute for Physics.

The Physical Setting: Earth Science
The Earth Science courses have four major areas of emphasis: astronomy, oceanography, geology, and meteorology. Through the study of the planet, we inhabit, students use scientific processes such as quantitative measurement, critical observation, interpretation of data, and drawing conclusions. All Earth Science courses have a lab requirement that must be met to pass the course and to take the Regents examination.

203 Earth Science-Regents
P-771 Earth Science Regents -  credit       Grade 9-10       40 weeks
This course covers the following topics through an investigative approach including: geology, an  in-depth study of rocks and minerals and Earth’s interior, weather and climate trends, and astronomy (the solar system and Earth’s motions). Students in this course obtain much of their information from lab exercises. Classes meet eight periods per cycle. The Earth Science Regents Exam is given at the completion of the course. Satisfactory completion of a laboratory requirement is a prerequisite for taking the Regents exam.
204 Earth Science-Honors - 1 credit      Grade 9-10       40 weeks
Earth Science Honors is an accelerated laboratory course which integrates an in-depth study of Earth’s properties and processes. The course will focus on plate tectonics, volcanism, earthquakes, glaciation, orogeny, topography, geologic history and the formation of rocks and minerals. Also included in this course is a study of meteorology, weather phenomena, and climate. Lastly, Earth’s place in the universe will be explored. Classes meet 8 periods per cycle. The Earth Science Regents Exam is given at the completion of the course. Satisfactory completion of a laboratory requirement is a prerequisite for taking the Regents exam. Recommendation: Successful completion of Living Environment with an 85 average or above and mastery (85) on the Living Environment Regents.

The Physical Setting: Chemistry
These courses are concerned with the structure and changes of matter and the relationship with energy. Topics include atomic structure, organization of the elements, chemical bonding, the solution process, states of matter, chemical reactions, and nuclear chemistry. All chemistry courses have a lab requirement, which must be met before sitting for the Regents exam. Successful completion of the Chemistry course is usually required to pursue a major in any field of Science: Physician, Physical Therapy, Physician’s Assistant, Pharmacy, Nursing, Dentistry, Veterinary Medicine, Engineering, or Forensics.

233 Chemistry-Regents - 1 credit       Grade 11      40 weeks
This course provides students a solid understanding of chemical principals and skills that are needed for college.  The study of chemistry involves the study of matter, its composition, structure, properties, and the changes it undergoes. There is a mathematics component to the course which requires intricate algebra skills which will be used to quantitatively define chemical relationships and reactions. As an upper level science class it is significantly more challenging than previous courses.
Classes meet 8 periods per cycle. The Regents exam is required at the end of the course and constitutes 20% of the final average. Satisfactory completion of a lab requirement is a prerequisite before sitting for the Regents exam. 
Prerequisite: Students must have achieved a passing grade in an algebra course and at least one science Regents exam. Recommendation: Students should also be enrolled in or have completed Geometry.
234 Chemistry-Honors - 1 credit       Grades 10-11      40 weeks
Honors Chemistry is a rigorous introductory chemistry course. This course is designed to meet the needs of students seeking a more stringent academic challenge than offered by the Regents program. Students must have a high level of achievement of algebra and mathematical skills.  The emphasis of the course is on understanding the chemistry concepts and the intricate details.  The course covers in-depth conceptual and mathematical treatment of all Regents areas with extensions into topics required for the SAT II Subject Test and preparation for A.P. Chemistry. The rigors of the course reflect a movement towards college level work. The honors activities are advanced in concept, critical thinking, and self-motivation.  The Regents exam is required at the end of the course and constitutes 20% of the final average. Satisfactory completion of a lab requirement is a prerequisite before sitting for the Regents exam. Students who master this course may consider taking the SAT Subject Test in Chemistry in early June. 
Prerequisite: Students must have achieved a passing grade in an algebra course and at least one science Regents exam.
Recommendation: A student should have successfully completed Algebra 2/Trigonometry or be concurrently enrolled in the course. Students should have also achieved an 85 or better in Earth Science and Living Environment courses and an 85 or better in the Algebra 1 course.
261 A.P. Chemistry - 1 credit      Grades 11-12       40 weeks
A.P. Chemistry is designed to be a college level course. The course covers many aspects of chemistry on a more quantitative level than in other courses. Students who plan to major in science, math, or pre-med in college will find this course useful and challenging. The course follows the Advanced Placement curriculum established by the College Board and prepares students for the A.P. Examination. Students who qualify based upon their examination scores may receive college credit and/or course waivers. Classes meet eight periods per cycle. Recommendation: Students who master this course may consider taking the SAT Subject Test in Chemistry in early June.
Prerequisite: Students must have passed a previous Chemistry course.
Recommendations

  • A student has achieved an 85 or better in Chemistry Honors or approval of teacher. This course should not be used as a substitute for physics.
  • A student should have passed Algebra 2/Trig andbe  concurrently enrolled in
    Pre-Calculus.

231 Connections to Chemistry 
P-772 Connections to Chemistry - 1 credit       Grades 11-12        40 weeks
This introductory course will cover four perspectives that define chemistry:  historical discoveries, methods of science, real world connections and laboratory competency. Students will model major discoveries, learn basic laboratory analysis techniques and apply these to organizing and identifying chemicals that are involved in everyday life. Topics will include: discovering the atom, states of matter, nuclear energy and medicine, polymers and hydrocarbons, and quantitative chemistry. Prerequisite: Satisfactory completion of one Regents science exam and passing the Living Environment course.

Physics
All of the physics courses involve the study of the transformations of matter and energy. Physics is the study of energy and the basic forces in the universe.  All of the physics courses involve the study of the transformations of matter and energy. They all have a laboratory requirement that must be met before the student may take the Regents examination. Students who are college-bound are encouraged to take a Physics course in their high school program. It is recommended that students who take four years of science enroll in physics.


243 Physics - 1 credit      Grades 11-12      40 weeks
Physics is the study of energy and the basic forces in the universe. Topics include mechanical motion and forces, heat, wave phenomena, electricity, magnetism, light, and atomic energy. The final exam in this course is a district created exam. The Regents exam is optional. Satisfactory completion of a laboratory requirement is a prerequisite before sitting for the Regents exam. The course is very experiment (hands-on) oriented. Recommendation: Students must have successfully completed Algebra 2/Trigonometry or Algebra 2/Trigonometry Honors. Students must also have completed their living environment requirement and two years commencement level science courses.
246 A.P. Physics 1 - 1 credit     Grades 11-12      40 weeks
This course is the equivalent of a first-semester college course in algebra-based physics. The course covers Newtonian mechanics (including rotational dynamics and angular momentum); work, energy, and power; mechanical waves and sound.  It will also introduce electric circuits. The course prepares students for the A.P. Physics 1 examination (non-calculus based course). Students who have a high interest in science and who plan on majoring in any area of science or engineering in college will find this course useful and challenging. This course follows the Advanced Placement curriculum established by the College Board. Class meets eight periods per cycle.
Recommendation: It is recommended that a student has achieved an 85 or better in Chemistry and scored an 85 or better on the Chemistry Regents. Students should have successfully completed Algebra 2/Trigonometry or Algebra 2/Trigonometry Honors.
247 A.P. Physics 2 - 1 credit       Grades 11-12      40 weeks
This course is the equivalent of a first-semester college course in algebra-based physics. A.P. Physics 2 is an algebra-based, introductory college-level physics course that explores topics such as fluid statics and dynamics; thermodynamics with kinetic theory; PV diagrams and probability; electro statics; electrical circuits with capacitors; magnetic fields; electromagnetism; physical and geometric optics; and quantum, atomic, and nuclear physics. Through inquiry-based learning, students will develop scientific critical thinking and reasoning skills.  This course requires that 25 percent of the instructional time will be spent in hands-on laboratory work, with an emphasis on inquiry-based investigations that provide students with opportunities to apply the science practices.  Class meets eight periods per cycle. 
Recommendation: Students should have had A.P. Physics 1 or a comparable course. It is recommended that a student has achieved an 85 or better in Chemistry and scored an 85 or better on the Chemistry Regents. Students should have successfully completed Algebra 2/Trigonometry or Algebra 2/Trigonometry Honors.

Additional Science Offerings

264 Science Research - 1 credit       Grades 9-12       40 weeks
This course gives students the opportunity to pursue original, independent research in an area of their choice. The course prepares students to design, implement, and present their research to the public through competitions including Intel STS, Siemens, ISEF, JSHS, and others. Students may enroll for all or part of four years and two summers working with a mentor scientist from the academic and/or business worlds. SUNY at Albany credits (up to 12) are awarded if portfolio criteria are met.
RecommendationStrong interest, evidence of disciplined work habits, a student essay, and teacher recommendation are necessary for participation in this course.
P-225 Human Anatomy and Physiology - 1  credit       Grades 11-12      40 weeks
Human Anatomy and Physiology is a laboratory based course that will enable students to understand the structures and functions of the human body. Students will use many of the Science and Engineering practices.  They will analyze and interpret data, develop and use models, and be introduced to biotechnology. This class is aimed at students who are interested in a career in medicine, nursing, health care, or physical therapy. The teacher will use a variety of resources to encourage student exploration into the various aspects of anatomy and physiology.
Recommendation: Two years of Science completed. It is strongly recommended that the student had attained mastery level (a score of 85 or higher) on the Living Environment Regents.
L-0811 Environmental Science - 1 credit        Grades 10-12        40 weeks
This course examines environmental and social impacts of industrial society and policy responses. We will explore current trends in industrialization, urbanization, and globalization, analyze the impacts these trends have on human health, environmental sustainability, and equity, and then examine a range of options available for responding to current problems. The course will present key trends in both domestic and international contexts. In particular this course will examine (1) industrial pollution and climate change; (2) agriculture and food shortages; (3) protecting ecosystems; (4) societies’ waste including e-waste (5) the looming water crisis and (6) sustainable cities. Through these issues, we will explore underlying processes and drivers of environmental degradation. Finally, we will analyze opportunities and barriers to policy responses taken by governments, international institutions, corporations, non-governmental organizations, consumers, and impacted communities.
265 A.P. Environmental Science - 1 credit     Grades 9-12      40 weeks
This course is an introductory college-level course. The goal of the A.P. Environmental Science course is to provide students with the scientific principles, concepts, and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world, to identify and analyze environmental problems both natural and human made, to evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems, and to examine alternative solutions for resolving or preventing them. Environmental science is interdisciplinary; it embraces a wide variety of topics from different areas of study. This course follows the curriculum established by the College Board and prepares students for the A.P. Environmental exam. Students who qualify based upon their examination scores may receive college credit and/or course waivers.
Recommendation: It is recommended that a student complete Earth Science and Living Environment and achieve an 85 or better. This course can be taken concurrently with Chemistry R or H.
Please Note: Summer academic assignments are required due to the breadth of content in this course. Related assessments will be conducted at the start of the school year. Assignments can be found on the school’s website, and texts can be picked up during the Regents Exam week in June.
L-283 Active Physics: Investigating Physics Applications in the Real World
1 credit      Grades 11-12          20 weeks
How do scientists know what they know? This course is taught in a Workshop Physics style, emphasizing hands-on experimentation and timely topics in today’s world. Instrumentation and learning by doing are emphasized. It includes student-designed, peer-reviewed group projects.
267 Forensics - 1½  credits      Grades 11-12      20 weeks
268 Forensics - 2 ½ credits      Grades 11-12      20 weeks
This course will explore a variety of areas in forensic science including collecting and analyzing physical evidence. Students will use chemical and biological techniques and equipment to examine blood, fibers, fingerprints, DNA, and other types of residues and materials left at crime scenes. Different material will be studied each semester. Students may enroll for both semesters or for Forensics I only. A local examination will be given at the end of each semester.
Recommendation: It is recommended that students successfully complete Living Environment and Earth science.
Prerequisite: Forensics I must be completed before enrolling in Forensics II.
L-270 Meteorology  - ½ credit      Grades 10-12      20 weeks
Students will look at the forces that drive our weather systems and how our world is shaped by our weather. We will look at the phenomena of tornadoes, lightning, hurricanes, thunderstorms and snowstorms. Students study these phenomena using real time weather data bases obtained via the Internet and recording weather instruments of the Lakeland Weather Club. Students are expected to write research papers and make class presentations. A local exam is given at the end of the course.
Recommendation: It is recommended that students have successfully completed Earth Science and taken one additional science course. Satisfactory completion of one Regents Exam in science is also recommended.
L-275 Oceanography - ½ credit       Grades 10-12      20 weeks
This course offers an introduction to marine science including marine biology, marine meteorology, physical and chemical oceanography, marine biology, and ecology. Lab experience and field trips are included. A local examination is given at the end of the course.
Recommendation: It is recommended that students have successfully completed Living Environment and have taken one additional science course. Satisfactory completion of one Regents Exam in science is also recommended.
277 Robotics - 1 credit     Grades 10-12      40 weeks
This one-year course studies the design, construction and programming of various self-directed robots.  Students will be able to program robots to move, grab objects, deal with obstacles, run through a maze, react to spoken commands and compete with other robots in competition.  Robotics Engineering is a hands-on, fully interactive course open to 10th, 11th, and 12th grade students.
280 Principles of Engineering - 1 credit       Grades 11-12       40 weeks
This introductory course is an integrative, hands-on project-based set of case studies, which will convey some of the key concepts and principles, skills, techniques, and attitudes underlying engineering. The course will bring math, science, technology, and technological literacy together. Topics include but are not limited to: definition and types of engineering, communications and documentation, materials, design, engineering systems, strength of materials, and reliability engineering. Prerequisite: Satisfactory completion of one Regents science exam and passing Living Environment.
061 Learning Center (Science) - No credit     Grades 10-12
This course is mandated by New York State Educational Law for any student whose test scores fall below the state reference points.  This is a non-credit bearing course. Other students who need academic assistance may be scheduled into the program to receive academic support in building study skills, and learning test-taking skills.
P-278 Environment and Society  - 1 credit      Grades 10-12     40 weeks
This course examines environmental and social impacts of industrial society and policy responses. We will explore current trends in industrialization, urbanization, and globalization, analyze the impacts these trends have on human health, environmental sustainability, and equity, and then examine a range of options available for responding to current problems. The course will present key trends in both domestic and international contexts. In particular, this course will examine (1) industrial pollution and climate change; (2) agriculture and food shortages; (3) protecting ecosystems; (4) societies’ waste including e-waste (5) the looming water crisis and (6) sustainable cities. Through these issues, we will explore underlying processes and drivers of environmental degradation. Finally, we will analyze opportunities and barriers to policy responses taken by governments, international institutions, corporations, non-governmental organizations, consumers, and impacted communities.